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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 80-83

Intimate Partner Domestic Violence in Jos Plateau State Nigeria

Government Dental Center, Jos, Plateau State

Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Abstract Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) occurs between two people in an intimate relationship. Common types of IPV are Coercive Controlling Violence (CCV), Violent Resistance (VR), Situational Couple Violence and Mutual Violent Control. Identifying the common types of IPV in a community will go a long way in managing and overcoming it. IPV that involves the death of a member or whole family is on the increase. The cause(s) of IPV are multi- factorial, creating gaps in recognition of IPV.
Aim: To identify IPV in Jos.
Objectives: To establish relationship between verbal and physical violence; to know the frequency of sexual abuse among respondents; to know respondents' perception on the risk to life as a result of IPV; and to identify health related issues due to IPV.
Methodology: Cross-sectional study involving 112 adults, age 21 to 68years. Married women (n=98) unmarried women (n=5) and men (n=12). Self-administered questionnaire for data collection on socio-demographic characteristics and screening tools which include: Hurt, Insult, Threaten, and Scream (HITS) Tool, Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST), Partner Violence Screen (PVS) and Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS).
Result: Excel version 8 and SPSS version 23.0 were used for data analysis to generate frequencies, percentages, and Chi square associations.
Hits: Marital status made signifi cant difference (X2=8.137, p=0.045). WAST: Age, gender and marital status made no signifi cant difference (X2=0.130, p=0.719). PVS: Marital status made signifi cant difference (X2 = 12.690, p=0.005). AAS: Marital status made signifi cant difference (X2=14.447, p=0.002).
Discussion: Sexual abuse made no signifi cant difference probably out of denial. Divorce and separation could be due to IPV with high HITS and injuries.
Conclusion and Recommendations: IPV occur in Jos. HITS and health related issues from emotional physical abuse by spouse were noted. Institutions should lookout for IPV, its perpetrators and victims, manage appropriately and enforce laws on IPV.

Keywords: Intimate, Partner , Violence

How to cite this article:
Irozuru M. Intimate Partner Domestic Violence in Jos Plateau State Nigeria. J Med Womens Assoc Niger 2021;6:80-3

How to cite this URL:
Irozuru M. Intimate Partner Domestic Violence in Jos Plateau State Nigeria. J Med Womens Assoc Niger [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Dec 6];6:80-3. Available from: http://www.jmwan.org/text.asp?2021/6/1/80/319855

  Introduction Top

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines IPV as “... any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship, including acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors” (3]. Domestic violence is a global issue and it cuts across all types of families irrespective of social, racial, economic or religious background and place of residence. (Ademola) The surge of domestic violence is affecting lives and properties everywhere. Of growing concern is increase in domestic violence that involves the death of a whole family which one member kills self, partner, and other family members. The factors responsible for intimate partner domestic violence is multi factorial, in resource limited countries such as Nigeria. Among these factors is individual, social, upbringing, communal classes, religious crisis in Jos plateau etc. This has created gab between recognition of types of domestic violence and adequate prompt help for the victim and the perpetrator which this study will try to address and make appropriate recommendations.

The victims of one type of abuse are often the victims of other types of abuse. Severity tends to increase with multiple incidents, especially if the abuse comes in many forms. If the abuse is more severe, it is more likely to have chronic effects on victims because the long- term effects of abuse tend to be cumulative. (33] The victims of one type of abuse are often because this type of violence is most likely to be extreme; survivors of intimate terrorism are most likely to require medical services and the safety of shelters. (6](7]

A 2012 review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered from over-proportionate numbers of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress as a result of partner violence. (59] The review also found that 70% of female victims felt frightened as a result of violence perpetrated by their partners whereas 85% of male victims expressed “no fear” in response to such violence. (59]

The effects of domestic violence on the victim, the family and the general population is enormous. Consequences of physical or sexual intimate terrorism include chronic pain, gastrointestinal and gynaecological problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and death. (34] Other mental health consequences are anxiety, substance abuse, and low self-esteem. Abusers are more likely to have witnessed abuse as children than those who engage in situational couple violence. (35]Both women and men can be victims and perpetrators of IPV, (50] Need for medical services and the safety of shelters. (6](7]

  General Aim Top

To identify intimate partner domestic violence among the adults in Jos North LGA, Plateau state Nigeria.

  Specific Objective Top

  1. To establish relationship between verbal and physical violence.
  2. To know the frequency of sexual abuse among respondents.
  3. To know respondents' perception on the risk to life as a result of IPV.
  4. To identify health related issues due to IPV.

  Rational For The Study Top

Frequent news report shows increase in intimate partner violence. The gap between awareness and management of domestic violence is huge; its study can be extended to other states in Nigeria, across Africa and other countries.

  Methodology Top

Study Area: This research was carried out in Jos. The participants are residing within Jos metropolis. 300 questionnaires were distributed in a conference hall and 112 agreed to participate.

Study Population: 112 people (couples, any male or female) gotten from a conference to mark World women's day in Jos.

Study Design: The study was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in February 2019.

Sampling Technique: A simple random sampling technique was employed. Participants were selected using a computer generated number of random values. Out of a total 325 conference attendees, 112 people were selected to participate in the study.

Data analysis: Micro soft word excel version 8 was used for data analysis and cleaning. SPSS version 23.0 was used for data analysis to generate standard deviation, frequency, percentages, and Chi square association.

Study Tools: Semi- structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to capture all categories of people including those who cannot read very well.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria: Adults above the age of 18 years were selected excluding people below the age of 18 years.

Ethical consideration: Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the Plateau State Specialist Hospital Jos.

  Results Top

More females (88.4%) than males (10.7%) participated in this study. Among the respondents, 87.5% were married, 4.5% divorced, 3.6% separated and 4.5% widowed.

Majority of the participants belong to the age group 31-40 years and 41-50 years, each with a frequency of 33.9%. Age group between 21-30 years constitutes 7.1% of respondents and the frequency of respondents above 50 years old is 4.5%.

Most participants spent more than 20 years in marriage (33.0%), followed by those who spent between 6-10 years (22.3%), then those with less than 5 years (15.2%), and the least spent between 16-20 years in marriage (11.6%).

Participants with between 3-4 children constitutes the majority. Those with 1-2 children and more than 5 children have a frequency of 26.8% and 18.8% respectively.

  Discussion Conclusion Top

IPV occur in Jos. HITS and health related issues from emotional and physical abuse are daily occurrences in our communities that have serious consequences even threats to life. IPV should be considered health concern by everyone and more research on IPV carried out.

  Anticipated Outcomes Top

Stimulate further study, increase awareness, encourage government and everyone to consider intimate partner domestic violence and its effect as a serious health hazard.
Table 1: Socio-demographic distribution of the participants

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Table 2: Cross tabulation of arguments resulting in hitting, kicking or pushing against demographic characteristics

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Table 3: Cross tabulation of Abuse by spouse and demographic characteristics

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Table 4: Cross tabulation of participants' life being at risk in marriage against demographic characteristics

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Table 5: Cross tabulations of health related issues resulting from abuse against demographic characteristics

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  Potential Beneficiaries Top

The victims and perpetrators during continuing education and training programs, Stakeholders and donor agencies from written report sent to them, those attending conferences or professionals meetings where the research report would be presented, Government officials/ policy maker during advocacy visits, the general public, and colleagues through publication in peer review journals.

  Potential Difficulties/Risks Top

Some victims and perpetrator may not give all the necessary information. Cost and time of preparation of questionnaire, calculating the sample size and low response rate, difficulty to estimate selection bias.

  Dissemination Top

Presentation at MWAN AGM and MWAN Journal.

  Recommendations Top

IPV should be regular topic in organized workshops, seminars and conferences for public. Those in authority should consider IPV as an environmental hazard and make it a major priority as health concern and make policies on it.


  References Top

Gelles 1980, 1989; McNeely and Mann 1990; Shupe, Stacey, and Hazelwood 1987; Straus 1973; Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz 1980; Steinmetz 1977/1978.  Back to cited text no. 1
Connie Mitchell (2009). Intimate Partner Violence: A Health-Based Perspective. Oxford University Press. pp. 319-320. ISBN 978-0199720729. Retrieved September 12, 2016.  Back to cited text no. 2
Mandi M. Larsen (2016). Health Inequities Related to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: The Role of Social Policy in the United States, Germany, and Norway. Springer. pp. 110-111. ISBN 978-3319295657. Retrieved September 12, 2016.  Back to cited text no. 3
Krug, Etienne G.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Mercy, James A.; Zwi, Anthony B.; Lozano, Rafael (2002). World report on violence and health (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. ISBN 9789240681804.  Back to cited text no. 4
Pamela Regan (2011). Close [26/02, 19:56] Dr. Magdalene Irozuru: Pamela Regan (2011). Close Relationships. Routledge. pp. 456-460. ISBN 978-1136851605. Retrieved March 1, 2016.  Back to cited text no. 5
Robert E. Emery (2013). Cultural Sociology of Divorce: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 397. ISBN 978-1452274430. Retrieved March 1, 2016.  Back to cited text no. 6
Anglin, Dierdre; Homeier, Diana C. (2014). “Intimate Partner Violence”. In Marx, John; Walls, Ron; Hockberger, Robert. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice, Volume 1 (8th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. p. 875. ISBN 978-1-4557- 0605-1.  Back to cited text no. 7
Howe, Tasha R. (2012). “Families in crisis: violence, abuse, and neglect: intimate partner violence: marital rape”. In Howe, Tasha R. Marriages and families in the 21st century a bioecological approach. Chichester, West Sussex Malden, Massachusetts: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405195010. Preview.  Back to cited text no. 8
Desmond Ellis, Noreen Stuckless, Carrie Smith (2015). Marital Separation and Lethal Domestic Violence. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 978-1317522133. Retrieved March 1, 2016.  Back to cited text no. 9
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L. (2005-09-01). “The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and theory: Part 1-The conflict of theory and data”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 10 (6): 680-714. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2005.02.001. [26/02, 19:59]  Back to cited text no. 10
WHO. Understanding and addressing intimate partner violence (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO/RHR/12.36. [26/02, 20:04]  Back to cited text no. 11
Straus, Murray A.; Hamby, Sherry L.; Boney-McCoy, Sue; Sugarman, David B. (2016-06-30). “The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2)”. Journal of Family Issues. 17 (3): 283-316. doi: 10.1177/019251396017003001 . [26/02, 20:05]  Back to cited text no. 12
Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Edd Sandra M.; Few, April L.; Daly, Kathryn L.; Tritt, Dari R. (2005). “A qualitative investigation of Johnson's typology” Violence & Victims. 20 (3): 319-334. doi: 10.1891/vivi.20.3.319 .PMID 16180370 . [26/02, 20:09]  Back to cited text no. 13
Fernandez, Marilyn (2010), “Hunger for healing: is there a role for introducing restorative justice principles in domestic violence services”, in Fernandez, Marilyn, Restorative justice for domestic violence victims an integrated approach to their hunger for healing, Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, p. 5, ISBN 9780739148068. Preview. JSTOR 1566718. [26/02, 20:11]  Back to cited text no. 14
Josiane Razera, Icaro Bonamigo, Denise Falcke. “Intimate Partner Violence and Gender A/Symmetry: An Integrative Literature Review.” Psico-USF, Bragança Paulista, v.2 2 , n.3, p.401 - 412, set./dez.2017. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/pusf/v22n3/2175-3563-pusf-22-03-401.pdf [26/02, 20:18]  Back to cited text no. 15


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]


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